What is The Internet of Things
join us in a journey with this article ” What is the Internet of Things “. We gonna start with its definition, applications that use this technology, its prospects, and the security of IoT.
Give certain objects a virtual electronic and personal identity to be a network operating in places using intelligent graphical interfaces to communicate and communicate within the user’s social and environmental conditions.
Let’s first in our Introduction, divide the two words and explain them:
The semantic origin of this expression consists of two words and two concepts: “Internet” and “Thing”.
The Internet can be defined as a vast global network of connected and connected computer networks; depending on a standard communication protocol.
A thing is an object that cannot be accurately determined.
“IoT” therefore means semantically:
“a vast global network of inter-connected objects that are uniquely contiguous; based on standard communication protocols”.
The history of the Internet of Things (IoT)
The history of the Internet of things dates back to the 1980s and 1990s when the idea of adding sensors and intelligence to the things around us emerged. Although some early projects appeared at the time. The progress was very slow because the technology was not ready enough. Chips were too large and bulky and there was no way to connect them.
The adoption of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chips–low–power chips that can connect wirelessly has solved this problem. Along with the increasing availability of broadband internet, cellular and wireless networks.
The adoption of IPv6 “Internet Protocol Version VI” which should provide, among other things, enough “Internet Protocol” IP addresses for every device the world is likely to need was a necessary step to expand the scope of the Internet of things.
The term Internet of things first appeared in 1999 as the title of a lecture by MIT Technology expert and Professor Kevin Ashton describing the use of RFID chips in Procter & Gamble’s online supply chain.
Definition of Internet of Things (IoT)
The concept of “Internet of Things” (IoT) can be explained simply as “the connection of the internet to physical objects or devices and tools located in homes, businesses, and roads. So that, they work in conjunction with web services and interact with them. So that, their state and accurate information can be known, tracked and monitored in their own databases”.
The spread of this concept was helped by the presence of modern technologies such as RFID radio frequency identification, remote sensors, as well as smartphones, which led to the integration of “things”: means, any “thing” communicates with other “things” via the internet to obtain an “Internet of things” technology that could replace “computer internet”.
This technology is built on the concept of addressing and networking so that the things that are used become smarter.
The Definition of (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT: Internet of things) refers to the billions of physical devices around the world now connected to the internet, all of which collect and share data. Thanks to the arrival of extremely cheap computer chips and the proliferation of wireless networks.
It became possible to turn anything-no matter how small as a pill or as large as a plane – into a part of the Internet of things. Linking all these different elements and add sensors to it to add a level of digital intelligence to devices that may be stupid, otherwise, which can transfer data in real-time without human intervention.
The Internet of things makes the fabric of the world around us smarter and more responsive as digital universes merge with the physical.
Online Address (IoT)
It is expected that any “object” will have a unique identification method soon, which in networking is known as “unique address”, creating an addressable sequence of computers, sensors, motors, mobile phones, and any “object” or object. All these “objects” (purposes) will be able to exchange information and, if necessary, effectively process information according to predetermined plans, which may or may not be inevitable.
Each piece of equipment connected to the internet uses an “Internet Protocol IP”. The code needed to run an IP can be compressed to several kilobytes, and then run on a microcontroller. IP information adds about 100 bits to the content of each message, usually with a negligible impact on response time and power requirements. In return for this modest increase, the network avoids the cost of developing and maintaining complex graphical interfaces.
The connection between the Computer and the Network
Each piece of equipment (thing) connected to the internet is responsible for tracking its own identity. Each computer connected to the network has five different names:
- MAC access control number, which is the physical address of the computer components on the local network (e.g. “00: 08:74:AC:05:0C”).
- Internet Protocol IP address on the World Wide Web (e.g. “126.96.36.199”).
- Network name (e.g. www.mit.edu).
- A functional name (e.g. the third server from the left).
- The name of the key code is used to connect to it securely.
Assigning names is one of the basic functions of the servers. Therefore, web installations must be able to perform those functions themselves in the absence of a server, as well as accept answers from a server if any.
Assign Functional Name
The most common types of computer component addresses are centrally controlled by allocating sets of manufacturers’ addresses that are included in their products. However, this type of coordination may not be possible for every lamp and switch produced around the world. Alternatively, each processing can simply choose a random sequence of numbers as its address.
The probability of choosing two processors for the same number (e.g. 128 bits) is almost non-existent, not exceeding 1 in every 1038 cases. There are more than a trillion unique addresses per square centimeter on Earth.
Users can assign functional names and names to computer components by interacting with the equipment.
For example, by pressing programming buttons on a lamp or a switch that causes it to release its address on the relay, thus establishing a control relationship, or by transferring the network address with a key code between the equipment to tighten the connection and make it secure.
Applications and prospects of the Internet of Things
Earlier Existence of IoT
A few years ago was heard about the existence of an internet refrigerator that would call the grocery store as soon as the food was finished asking for more. Or you suggest a new cooking recipe you found on the internet based on the ingredients inside the refrigerator.
Home lady in the West can now buy a refrigerator connected to the internet and can connect to the refrigerator from outside the house to find out its contents and the availability of food in it or lack thereof to provide her with the food she needs, and this applies to other household appliances such as washing machine and others.
Not only that, the technological applications of internet things have extended to many industrial and commercial areas such as cars, follow-up, and movement, management of warehouses and warehouses to know the number of materials, as well as many medical and engineering applications, the technology of internet things, began to spread day by day; to include many goods and products.
Applications of the Internet of Things
There are a lot of current applications of the Internet of things, the most important of which lies in the area of mobile commerce, health care, energy, transportation, and the environment.
For example, this technology is increasingly being used in trade and services such as retail, warehouse, and warehouse management and identification of the source and expiration date of goods.
The volume of business transactions based on this technology is expected to be more than 100 trillion $ shortly. They are also used in the mail service, book circulation, passport examination, and other things.
Examples of IoT applications
Any device can be converted to become part of the Internet of things if it can be connected to the internet to control it or communicate information.
A lamp that can be lit using a smartphone app is a simple example of the Internet of things. Examples are many and varied in complexity and some large, complex applications may contain many small IoT components, such as a jet engine filled with thousands of sensors or sensors that collect and transmit data many times to make sure it works efficiently. More broadly, Smart Cities projects fill entire areas with sensors to help us understand and control the environment.
These applications have evolved, and have companies that finance them, such as IBM, offer a range of sensor technology solutions with RFID tags to label goods and goods.
Smartwatch or Fitness Band
The term IoT usually refers to those devices that are not generally expected to be connected to the internet. But can be connected to become part of the network to operate without any human intervention. Therefore, a computer or even a smartphone is not an example of the Internet of things, but the smartwatch and the fitness band are important examples.
Another technology that has a long history in IoT mobility is bar Code, specifically the so-called “two-dimensional” technology. Technological developments in smart mobile phones have made binary bar codes available to everyone. In Japan, the QR code Quick Response code is widely distributed. Which is included in everything from fast food boxes to medicine boxes.
Benefits of the Internet of Things
Benefits of IoT for business and enterprise
The benefits of IoT for any business depend on private execution; efficiency and flexibility are a top priority.
The idea is that companies will be able to get more data about their products and rules of procedure. Thus, the possibility of making appropriate changes depending on this data.
Manufacturers add sensors to some parts of their products enabling them to transfer data back about their performance. This can help companies determine when a part is likely to fail and switch before it causes a problem or malfunction. Companies can also use the data collected by these sensors to make their systems and supply chains more efficient. They will have more accurate data on what is actually happening.
IoT benefits for consumers
IoT technology promises to make our environment – our homes, offices, and vehicles – smarter, more measurable, and chatter. Smart speakers like Amazon Echo and Google Home make it easy to play music, set timers, or get information. Home security systems make it easy to monitor what’s going on inside and outside or see and talk to visitors. At the same time; can thermostats’ smartphone that helps us in heating our homes before we go back, and lamps smart to make it look like we’re at home even when we’re out.
Looking beyond the home, sensors can help us understand how noisy or polluted the environment is, and self-driving cars and smart cities can change the way we build and manage our public spaces. However; many of these innovations can have significant implications for our privacy and personal data.
Security and privacy in the Internet of things
The main disadvantage of IoT’S use of RFID is its lack of information security. It can be used to spy on companies and violate the privacy of homes and the personal lives of individuals.
RFID signals are also likely to interfere with their counterparts in technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, leading to significant problems.
Security and privacy protection are some of the biggest issues facing the Internet of things. These sensors in many cases collect highly sensitive data.
For example, what you say and do in your home. Maintaining this security is very important for building consumer confidence, but it seems that the IoT security track record so far has been pretty bad.
Many IoT devices don’t think much about the basics of security, such as encrypting data while it’s being moved and in downtime.
Software bugs are frequently detected-even old and well-used software-but many IoT devices lack the ability to correct them, meaning they are at constant risk. Hackers are now actively targeting IoT devices such as routers and webcams because of their inherent lack of security. Making it easy to hack them and thus join a group of hacked devices in the so-called botnet giant.
If such errors, defects left smart home appliances such as refrigerators, ovens, and dishwashers, open to hackers. Researchers have found around a hundred thousand webcams that can be easily hacked, while some children’s internet-connected smartwatches have security holes that allow hackers to track the wearer’s location, eavesdrop on conversations or even communicate with the user.
Costs vs Security ( Internet of Things )
When the cost of making smart things becomes minimal, these problems become more widespread and complex
Connecting industrial machines to IoT networks increases the potential risks for hackers to detect and attack these devices. Such as the risk of industrial espionage or a devastating attack on infrastructure. This means that companies will need to ensure that these networks are isolated and protected. With the need to securely encrypt data via sensors, gateways, and other components.
However, the current state of IoT technology makes it more difficult to ensure this, as with the lack of coherent IoT security planning across organizations, this is very worrying given the documented attempts by hackers to tamper with industrial systems connected to the internet but left unprotected.
The Internet of things bridges the gap between the digital world and the physical world, which means that hacking devices can cause serious consequences in the real world. Hacking the sensors that control the temperature in the power plant can fool operators into making a catastrophic decision; so can taking control of a driverless car where it can end in disaster.
How will the future of the Internet of Things be?
Given the advances in communication technologies, the trend towards the use of wireless technologies, and the possibility of obtaining IP numbers, especially as the IPv6 standard approaches. It can be said that the next few years will see wider use of the “Internet of Things” revolution. But a new technology revolution often faces a lot of obstacles. Especially in people’s acceptance of it, how safe it is, and the lack of health effects from its use.
With the advent of cloud computing, the Internet of things will spread very quickly. The cloud server will create a new approach to computing that enables companies and individuals to use the internet to sift through and store information and data and the computing power they need to respond to any customer demand, create market opportunities, and counter competitive threats.
However, to reach such a level of peripheral intelligence, the world still needs many technological innovations and advanced developments. Governance, standardization, and the possibility of sharing information remain an absolute need on the road to seeing things that can communicate with one another.
In addition, substantial research is needed to enable any equipment to adapt and act independently, intelligently, with durability and reliability. The organizational structure general “things” smart fundamentally important. They are being centralized or distributed completely.
The Evolution of the Internet of things; what next?
As prices for sensors and communications continue to fall, it has become materially worthwhile to add more devices to the IoT. Even if in some cases there is no obvious benefit to consumers. The spread of this technology is still in its early stages.
Most companies that have been involved in IoT are still in the pilot phase. Largely because the technology needed – sensor technology, 5G communication networks, and Machine Learning Analytics – is still in its early stages of development to some extent.
Many competing platforms and standards as well as many vendors want their share of the cake. And the winner among these is still unknown. But without security and protection standards, we are likely to see more major IoT security incidents in the next few years.
Finally, we come to the end of our journey with the Internet of Things. So, The future is ahead of us, take a lead.
As the number of connected devices continues to rise, our living and working environments will become full of smart products. Assuming we are willing to accept the security and Privacy swaps.
As with all new technologies, some will welcome the new age of smart things. Others will wail over those ages when man was free from the limitations of technology around him, Are you from what team?
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